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def: a small protein found in the plasma membrane, which acts like a membrane trasnport protein that pumps H+ (protons) out of the bacterium.

info: they contain a single light-absorbing nonprotein molecule called retinal which gives the protein a purple color. When retinal absorbes a photon of light, it changes shape.

Base Pair (chapter 5)

def: two nucleotides in an RNA or DNA molecule that are specifically paired by hydrogen bonds (G -> C; A -> T/U)

what do:

  • Always found in the inside of the double helix chain.
  • A(denine) ALWAYS pairs with T(hymine) — or U(racil), in the case of RNA.
  • G(uanine) ALWAYS pairs with C(ytosine)
  • Base pairs are a purine-pyrimidine pairing
  • They are energetically favorable in their pairing

Bc12 Family (chapter 18)

def: Family of intracellular proteins that either promote or inhibit apoptosis by regulating the activation of caspases.

Bi-Orientation (chapter 18)

def: The symmetrical alignment of sister chromatid pairs on the mitotic spindle, such that one chromatid is attached to one spindle pole and the other chromatid to the opposite pole.

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