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Endoplasmic Reticulum

where membrane synthesis occurs.

Epigenetic Inheritance (chapter 5)

def: Inherited (that is, super imposed) on the information inherited in the Dna sequence itself. Often, information in the form of a particular type of chromatin structure (eg. a certain patter of histone modification or DNA methylation).

Euchromatin (chapter 5)

def: one of the two main states in which chromatin exists within an interphase cell, the other being heterochromatin. Characterized by particular histone modifications and associated proteins; genes in chromatin are in general able to be expressed.

Endocytosis (chapter 15)

def: Uptake of material into a cell by an invagination of the plasma membrane and its internalization in a membrane-bound vesicle (references: pinocytosis and phagocytosis)

Endosome (chapter 15)

def: Membrane-enclosed compartment of a eukaryotic cell through which endocytosed material passes on its way to lysosomes.

Exocytosis (chapter 15)

def: Process by which most molecules are secreted from a eukaryotic cell. These molecules are packaged in membrane-enclosed vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the outside.

Enzyme Coupled Receptor (chapter 16)

def: Transmembrane receptor proteins that activate an intracellular enzyme (either a separate enzyme or part of the receptor itself) in response to ligand binding to the extracellular part of the receptor.

Extracellular Signal Molecule (chapter 16)

def: Any molecule present outside the cell that can elicit a response inside the cell when the molecule binds to a receptor protein. Some signal molecules, such as steroid hormones, can enter cells and act on internal receptors, whereas others, such as proteins, act as receptors embedded in the plasma membrane and exposed on the cell surface.

Exon (chapter 7)

def: Segment of a eukaryotic gene that is transcribed into RNA and expressed; dictates how the amino acid sequence of part of a protein.

Epigenetic Inheritance (chapter 8)

def: Inheritance that is superimposed on the information inherited in the DNA sequence itself. Often, information in the form of a particular type of chromatin structure (eg. a certain pattern of histone modification of DNA methylation)

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