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def: these assist in the asymmetricness of the cell membrane. They form a sugary and protective coat of carbohydraytes that surround the cell.

They are only found in the noncytosolic half of the lipid bilayer. (the half not facing the cytosol)

Glycolipids get their sugar groups from the golgi apparatus

Gene Expression

def: the process by which the information encoded in DNA is interpeted by the cell to guide the synthesis of proteins.


def: the complete set of information in an organism's DNA


def: a segment of DNA that contains instructions for making a particular protein, or sometimes a set of closely related proteins

However, Some genes direct the production of the RNA molecule instead of protein as thier final product.

a simple organism will have less than 500 genes (a simple bacterium)
a complex organism will have up to or more than 25,000 genes (a human for example)

generally the more complex a species is the more genes is has but this does not always hold true. Humans have more genes than yeast, but plants and some species of ameoba have more genes than humans.

Golgi Apparatus (chapter 15)

def: Membrane enclosed organelle in eukaryotic cells where the proteins and lipids made in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and sorted for transport to other sites (named after its discoverer, Camillo Golgi).

G Protein (chapter 16)

def: One of a large family of GTP-binding proteins composed of three subunits (heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins) that are important in intermediaries in intracellular signaling pathways. Usually activated by the binding of a hormone or other ligand to a transmembrane receptor.

GTP-binding protein (chapter 16)

def: An allosteric protein whose conformation and activity are determined by its association with either GTP or GDP. Includes many proteins involved in cell signaling, such as Ras and G proteins.

G-protein coupled receptor (chapter 16)

def: Cell surface receptor that associates with intracellular trimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein) after receptor activation by an extracellular ligand. These receptors are sevenpass transmembrane proteins.

Gene Expression (chapter 7 & 8)

def: The process by which a gene makes its effect on a cell or organism by directing the synthesis of a protein or an RNA molecule with a characteristic activity.

Genetic Code (chapter 7)

def: Set of rules specifying the correspondence between nucleotide triplets (codons) in DNA or RNA and amino acid in proteins.

General Transcription Factors (chapter 7)

def: Proteins that assemble in the promoters of many eukaryotic genes near the start site of transcription and load the RNA polymerase in the correct position.

Gene Replacement (chapter 10)

def: The replacement of a normal gene in an organism with one that has been mutated in vitro; used to investigate the gene's function.

Genotype (chapter 10)

def: Set of genes carried by an individual cell or organism.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) (chapter 18)

def: Fluorescent protein (from a jellyfish) that is widely used as a marker for monitoring the movement of proteins in living cells.

G1- Cdk (chapter 18)

def: Cyclin-dependent kinase whose activity drives the cell through G1 phase.

G1 Phase (chapter 18)

def: Gap 1 phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle, between the end of cytokinesis and the start of DNA synthesis.

G2 Phase (chapter 18)

def: Gap 2 phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle, between the end of DNA synthesis and the beginning of mitosis.

G1 S-Cdk (chapter 18)

def: Cyclin-dependent kinase whose activity triggers entry into S phase of the cell cycle.

Growth Factor (chapter 18)

def: Extracellular polypeptide signaling molecule that stimulates a cell to grow or proliferate. Examples are epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).

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